Pramiracetam: similar to piracetam in effects, but pramiracetam has a much lower effective dose and is fat soluble instead of water soluble. Pramiracetam shouldn’t be taken in powder form or sublingually, it may cause burning and irritation. Pramiracetam seems to partially reverse scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits. Limited evidence suggests pramiracetam may be more effective than piracetam at restoring memory after brain trauma. No studies have been done to show pramiracetam improves cognitive performance in otherwise healthy individuals.